Joint Pains


Sudden pain in one of the knees is usually the result of overusing the knee or injuring it.

The knee joint is particularly vulnerable to damage and pain because it takes the full weight of your body and any extra force when you run or jump. You’re more likely to experience knee pain as you get older, and people who are overweight or do lots of sports have a higher risk of damaging their knees. Some sports that involve a lot of turning, such as football, netball and skiing, carry a particularly high risk of knee injuries.
This page summarises some of the most common causes of pain in one or both knees.

Common causes of knee pain

Common causes of knee pain include:

  • Sprains and strains
  • Anterior knee pain (pain around the kneecap)
  • Menisci or cartilage damage
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Tendonitis
  • Bursitis (housemaid’s knee)
  • Torn ligaments or tendons
  • Bleeding into the joint
  • Osgood-Schlatter’s disease
  • Gout
  • Septic arthritis (infected knee joint)



Osteoarthritis is a condition that causes the joints to become painful and stiff.

The severity of osteoarthritis symptoms can vary greatly from person to person, and between different affected joints. For some people, the symptoms may be mild and may come and go, whereas others can experience more continuous and severe problems.

Almost any joint can be affected by osteoarthritis, but the condition most often causes problems in the knees, hips, and small joints of the hands.The pain and stiffness in the joints can make carrying out everyday activities difficult for some people with the condition.

What causes osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis occurs when there is damage in and around the joints that the body cannot fully repair. It’s not clear exactly why this happens in some people, although your chances of developing the condition can be influenced by a number of factors, such as your age and weight.

Osteoarthritis usually develops in people over 45 years of age, although younger people can also be affected.
It is commonly thought that osteoarthritis is an inevitable part of getting older, but this is not quite true. You may in fact be able to reduce your chances of developing the condition by doing regular, gentle exercises and maintaining a healthy weight.

Managing osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a long-term condition and can’t be cured, but it doesn’t necessarily get any worse over time and it can sometimes gradually improve. A number of treatments are also available to reduce the symptoms.

  • Life style modification
  • Opiods
  • Regular exercises
  • Intra articular injections
  • RF ablation
  • Surgery

Shoulder Pain


Shoulder pain is a common problem with a number of different causes. It’s often a symptom of another problem.

There are a number of reasons why you might be experiencing shoulder pain, which include:

  • Poor posture
  • Frozen shoulder – a painful condition that reduces normal movement in the joint and can sometimes prevent movement in the shoulder altogether
  • Rotator cuff disorders – the rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint and help to keep it stable
  • Shoulder instability – where the shoulder is unstable and may have an unusually large range of movement (hypermobility)
  • Acromioclavicular joint disorders – conditions, includingosteoarthritis that affect the acromioclavicular joint, which is the joint at the top of the shoulder
  • Osteoarthritis in the shoulder joints
  • A broken (fractured) bone, such as a fracture of the humerus (upper arm bone) or broken collarbone

In some cases, pain in the shoulder isn’t caused by a problem in the shoulder joint, but by a problem in another area, such as the neck, that is felt in the shoulder and upper back.

Treating shoulder pain

There are things you can do yourself to treat shoulder pain, including using painkillers such as ibuprofen, or ice packs to reduce inflammation and relieve pain. Avoiding activities that may aggravate your symptoms will also help.

Depending on the cause of your shoulder pain, you may need further treatment, such as:

  • Physiotherapy
  • Injections of corticosteroids – a type of medication that contains hormones
  • Surgery (in some cases)

In most cases, shoulder disorders improve over time if treatment advice is followed.